Bank Kya Hai – What is Bank in Hindi Puri jankari

Bank kya hai (What is bank in Hindi) iske bare me sari duniya janti hai. Aisa koi insan nahi jo directly ya indirectly bank se juda hua na ho. India ko digital karne ke liye bhi kadam uthane ki shuruat ho chuki hai. Isi kadi me gaon me rehne wale logon ko bhi bank account khulwaya ja raha hai. Aap ke paas bhi account jarur hoga. Bahut se aise log bhi hain jo ek se jyada account khulwa ke rakhte hain. Samay aisa aa chuka hai ki logo ko ab mobile banking, internet banking ki suvidha di jati hai jisse log apne phone ya computer se apne account ki len den (transaction) aaram se kar lete hain.

Account na ho to aap soch sakte hain ki kitni problem hoti hai. Aap jo ghar baithe electricity bill, gas bill, shopping, transaction, mobile recharge, DTH recharge kar lete hain, kya wo bina bank account ke kar lete? Iska jawab hoga nahi. Kyu ki aap har jagah paise ki transaction karne ke liye apne account se hi paise ko transfer karte hain. Online wallet me bhi paise rakhte hain lekin uske liye aapke account ke debit ya credit card ke jariye hi paisa jata hai. Puri duniya me logo dwara iske account ka istemal kiya jata hai.

Hamare desh me bhi bahut sare banks hain. Kya aapne kabhi janne ki koshish ki hai ki aakhir ye Bank kya hota hai (What is bank in Hindi). Agar kabhi iske bare me khayal nahi aaya to koi baat nahi is post me aapko iske bare me puri jankari milegi. Iske sath hi hum yahan janenge ki Bank kitne tarah ke hote hain (types of bank in hindi). To chaliye is ke bare me janna shuru karte hain.

Bank Kya Hai – What is Bank in Hindi

Bank aisi financial sanstha hoti hai jahan se jarurat padne par logon ko loan ke roop me karz diya jata hai aur log apne paise ko surakshit rakhne ke liye is me jama kar ke rakhte hain. Kuch log interest lene ke liye bhi paise jama kar ke rakhte hain aur jab unhe jarurat padti hai to paise nikalte bhi rehte hain.

Is tarah aapko samajh me aa hi gaya hoga ki aakhir ye bank kya hoti hai aur ye kaam kaise karti hai. Is me log jo paise jama kar ke rakhte hain use ye business man aur traders ko interest me deti hai. Isse ye income karti hai. Aap to jante hi honge ki bade bade business man apne aadhe paise invest karte hain aur aadhe paise loan ke roop me lete hain.

Bank ke liye is tarah se business se achhi interest mil jati hai. Koi bhi business bina loan liye possible nahi hai. Kyu ki bade business me investment bahut jyada karni hoti hai jo loan ke roop me hi mil sakta hai.

Ye sirf paise jama karne aur loan dene ka hi kaam nahi karte balki iske alawa bhi dusre kaam karti hai. Logon ke paas jo jewllery hoti hai use surakshit rakhne ke liye suvidha pardan karti hai sath hi check system se paise nikalne ki suvidha, billa jama karne ke liye kaam karti hai. Ye hamare liye bahut faydemand hai lekin humne kabhi ye janne ki koshish nahi ki hogi aakhir is facility ki shuruat kab se hui hai. Chaliye hum is ke itihas ke bare me jante hain.

Bank History in Hindi – Bank Ka itihaas

Purane samay me is ki shuruat traders dwara prototype bank ke roop me ki gai thi. Us waqt logo ke bich Barter system ka istemal kiya jata tha. Barter system kya hai? Is sawal ka jawab ye hai ki purane time me jab paise ka chalan nahi tha to us waqt log ek vastu ya seva ke badle dusri vastu ya seva ka len den kiya karte the, jise vastu-vinimay ya Barter system ke naam se jana jata hai.

Example ke liye us waqt ek cow ke badle 10 bakri ka len den hota tha. Is system ka istemal wahin kiya jata tha jahan mudra ka istemal nahi hota. Agar aapne dhyan diya hoga to ye bhi janne ko mila hoga ki purane samay me log zameen ki kharid bikri bhi dusre chizon ke badle me karte the.

Meri jankari me bhi ek case maine ye paya ki purane time ke log 2-3 bakri dekar zameen ke tukde ki adla badli kar lete the.

Barter system ki shuruat kareeb 2000 BC me Assyria aur Babylonia me hua tha. Baad me purane Greece aur Roman empire ke time me temples me establishes lenders ne loan ki shuruat  ki aur is me 2 important naye vicharo ko joda.

2 Important vichar

  1. Paise ka jama karna
  2. Vastu ke badle Paise ki len den

Isi bich me China aur India me bhi paise ki loan dene ka system shuru ho gaya tha.

Waise agar kaha jaye to Bharat me bank se jude facility ka itihaas 200 saal purana hai. India me jo bhi bank abhi hum dekhte hain uski shuruat me British rule ke time me hui thi. 19th century ke shuruat me hi  British East India company ne 3 Banks ko start kiya. Bank of Bengal 1809, Bank of Bombay 1840 aur Bank of Madras 1843. Lekin baad me in teeno ko mila kar Imperial bank bana diya gaya lekin fir baad me ise 1955 me mila ke Bhartiya State (SBI) me badal diya gaya.

Allahabad bank Bharat ka pehla private bank tha. 1935 me Bhartiya Reserve bank ko establish kiya gaya tha aur iske baad Punjab national bank, BOI, Canara Bank aur Indian bank shuru kiye gaye.

Bharat ki azadi ke bad bhartiya RBI ko kendriya bank ka darza diya gaya. Use banko ka bank declare kar diya gaya. Sabhi tarah ki nitiyon ko tay karne aur use dusre bank aur financial institution dwara lagu karne ki jimmedari bhi saunpi gai. Is me RBI ka pura control hi important role play karti hai.

Bank ki Paribhasha – Definition of bank in Hindi

Har desh me is ki paribhasha alag alag hai. Apne kaam ke anusar pratyek desh bsnk ki paribhasha dete hain. Agar hum baat kare English Common Law ke anusar jo paribhasha di gai uske tahat ek banker ko aadmi ke roop me mana gaya hai jo is se juda trade karta hai. Jaise apne customer ke liye account shuru karwana, Account se jude check ko issue karna deposit ke paise ko lena aur customer ke liye check ko arrange karna.

Dusre shabdon me kahen to ye ek aisi establishment hai jo sarkar ke dwara pramanit hoti hai jo logon ke paise jama karti hai, interest chukati hai, check ko clear karti hai, loan deti hai. iske sath hi jo transaction kiye jate hain uska sanchalan karti hai. Iske alawa aur bhi services jaise mobile banking, internet banking etc deti hai.

Current India me Banking

Aaj ke India me banking suvidha janak aur pareshani mukt hai. Ek aam aadmi bhi aasani se len den ke kaam ko kar sakta hai. In ke dwara di jane wali alag alag facilites ye hain.

Bank Account :

Ye banking sector ki sabse aam ya common seva hain. Koi bhi kabhi bhi account khol sakta hai. In me se koi bhi account type jaise saving account, current account, deposit account khol sakte hain.

Loan Account :

Middle class family me aksar log job karte hain aur har kuch bade yojana ko pura karne ke liye is ka rukh karte hain. Middle class ke ek aadmi ki montyhly salary itni nahi hoti ki wo ek baar me un paise se koi bada kaam kar sake. Isiliye use loan lene ki jarurat pad jati hai. Is tarah se wo alag alag loan jaise Home loan, Personal loan, education loan aur bhi kai tarah ke loan le sakta hai. In loan ko dene ke liye loan account ki suvidha di jati hai aur ise wapas chukane ke liye ek time period fix kar liya jata hai. Jis samay ke andar tak customer ko sare paise wapas dene hote hain.

Money Transfer :

Duniya ke kisi bhi hisse se duse hisse me paise bhejne ke liye ye bahut tarah ki facilities deta hai jaise drafts, check etc. Ajkal online transaction se kaun waakif nahi hai. Bas kuch seconds me aap chahe to kisi bhi account me paise ko transfer kar sakte hain. is tarah ki suvidha hume ye deti hai.

Shuru me iske liye line me khada hona padta tha lekin aaj aisa samay aa chuka hai ki apne phone ke istemal se hum palak jhapakte hi ek account se dusre account ko duniya ke kisi bhi hisse me paise bhej sakte hain.

Credit & Debit Card :

Aajkal har bank credit aur debit card ki facility dete hain. In cards ke bahut tarah ke istemal hote hain. Credit card se kahin bhi shopping kar sakte hain aur online service ke liye paise pay kar sakte hain.

Credit card aisa card hai jisme hume kuch limitation di jati hai. Jaise maan lijiye apko monthly 20,000 Rs. ki limit di gai hai to aap chahe to itne paise ki shopping ya service kharid sakte hain aur fir ek mahine ke andar is paise ko bina extra charge diye hue chuka sakte hain. Ye paise credit card provider pay karte hain jinhe hum baad me use chukate hain.

Debit card hamare account me jama paise se hi istemal karte hain. Account me jitna paisa balance ke roop me hoga usi ka istemal kar sakte hain. Balance khatam hone ke baad iska use nahi ho sakta.

Lockers :

Bahut sare aise banks hain jo apne customer ko Locker ki facility dete hain jisme log apne bahut important documents aur jewellery ko safety ke liye rakh sakte hain. kyu ki ghar me har chiz jo kimti hai use rakhna surakshit nahi hai. Isiliye log is tarah ke lockers ka istemal karte hain. Aur bina kisi tension liye safe rakhte hain.

NRI ke liye banking seva

Jo log India se bahar rehte hain wo bhi account khulwa sakte hain. NRI lagbhag sabhi bhartiya banko me apna account open kar sakte hain. NRI ke liye 3 type ke account kholne ki suvidha di jati hai.

Non-resident Account(Simple) – NRO

NRI (External) Rupee Accounts – NRE

Non Resident (foreign currency) Account – FCNR

Different type of India’s Commercial Banks

Bharat me bahut tarah ke commercial bank hain. Jinko hum yahan alag alag ctegory ke roop me divide karte hain. To chaliye in ke bare me jaante hain.

Central bank:

RBI bharat ka central bank hai jo bharat sarkar ke under hai. Iska sara control central government ke paas hota hai. Is ka sara command ek governer ko diya jata hai jiska chunaw central government karti hai. Central bank hi desh ki sari banko ko sanchalan ke liye direction deti hai.

Public Sector bank :

Bhartiya state bank aur uske sabhi associate banks ek group ke roop me kaamkarti hai jise ‘State Bank Group’ ke naam se jana jata hai. Is me 20 nationalized hain. Regional rural bank bhi private sector bank ke dwara hi sponsor kiye jate hain.

Private Sector Bank :

private sector ke under is tarah ke bank aate hain.

Active foreign bank in India

Old- Generation

New generation

Non Scheduled

Scheduled Co-operative

Development Bank:

Kisi special sector ke development ya vikas ke liye jin banko ko shuru kiya jata hai unhe development bank bola jata hai. Jaise business, agriculture, import-export. Ye bahut khas hote hain jinki kuch vishestayen main yahan bata raha hu.

  • Dusre sadharan banks ki tarah janta se paise ko deposit karne ka kaam nahi karti hai.
  • Ye commercial banks ki tarah short term loan nahi balki long term loan dene ka kaam karte hain.
  • Iska ka main kaam apne under aane wale sector ko loan dena aur business ko tezi se develop karna aur desh ki pragati ki raftaar ko badhana hai.
Indsutrial sector se related:

IDBI – Industrial development bank of India

UTI – Unit trust of India

ICICI Ltd. –  Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of Indian bank

IFCI – Industrial Finance Corporation of India Ltd.

SIDBI – Small Industrial Development Bank of India

Agriculture se related :

NABARD – National bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

LDB – Land Development Bank.

Iske 2 types hote hain

1. State level

2. District Level

Import/Export se related:

EXIM – Export-Import bank of India.

Cooperative Sector Bank :

Ise sahkari bank ke naam se bhi jana jata hai. Sahkari type gramin (rural) logon ke liye bahut labh dayak (useful) hota hai. Is tarah se sahkari ko bhi 3 bhagon me divide kiya jta hai.

Primary Agricultural Credit Society

State cooperative

Central cooperative

Doston ab aap hamare desh me bahut tarah ke established banks ke bare me jaan chuke honge. Sath hi inke kaam kya kya hai aur kis aadhar par inhe alag alag bhago me banta gaya hai wo bhi samajh chuke honge. Banking ka itihaas bharat me bhi bahut purana hai jaisa ki humne dekha ki puri duniya me iska ka chalan kaise aur kahan se shuru hua. Sath hi ye bhi janne ko mila ki bharat me iski shuruat kaise hui.

Conclusion

Doston apko Bank kya hai (What is Bank in Hindi) ke bare me ache se samajh me aa gaya hoga. Is post ke madhyam se aapne aaj jana ki bank ka itihaas kya hai aur is ki shuruat purane samay me kis tarah hui. Sath hi apko iske bare me bhi janne ko mila ki banking ki shuruat bharat me kaise hui? Maine apko is post me isse jude har pahlu ke bare me jankari di hai. Is ki paribhasha kya hoti hai- Definition of bank in hindi bhi batayi. Kis tarah har desh ise apne tarah se apne shabdon me paribhashit karta hai ye bhi bataya.

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2 Comments

  1. Monu October 9, 2018

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